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印度政 审查实时空气污 数据
                                                                              From:青岛希 尔翻译公  http://www..cn  Date: 2015-03-18

 

 

NEW DELHI — This megacity’s modest effort to warn residents about unhealthy spikes in air pollution levels in real time may soon end, after a decision to first send the data to be authenticated by the central government.

新德里 —这座特大城市采取了一些颇为保守的举动,空气污 水平飙升到影响健康的水平时,实时向居民发出警告。但这一举措可能很快就要走到尽头了,因 为当局决定,要先将数据发给中央政府进行核实。
Some experts and activists immediately questioned the need for such checks, accusing the government of trying to hide — or worse, alter — data that show Delhi’s air to be the world’s most toxic at a time when Prime Minister Narendra Modi is pushing for greater industrialization. Recent high readings, in many cases exceeding Beijing’s pollution readings, have alarmed the city’s Indian elites and expatriate community.
一些专 和活动人士立即对进行这种检查的必要性表示了质疑,指责政府试图隐瞒——甚至篡改——数据。相关数据显示,当前在总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)推动进 步工业化之际,德里的空气是全世界污染最严重的。最近居高不下的读数多次超过北京的污染数据,引起了该市的印度精英和外籍人士的警觉。
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Although the government says it will release the checked data daily, at least one official questioned whether that would happen consistently. Any delay in the release of the information deprives people of the opportunity to protect themselves against bad air by limiting their time outdoors.

尽管政 表示将每日发布核查后的数据,但至少一名官员质疑这一安排能否始终如一地执行。信息发布过程中的任何延误,都会影响人们减少户外活动,进而保 护自己不受糟糕空气危害的机会。
Five officials contacted by telephone on Wednesday refused to answer questions about the new policy.
记者周 通过电话联系到的五名官员,均拒绝回答关于这一新政策的问题。
A statement issued on Tuesday by India’s environment ministry said, “The unified system, expected to be in position in maximum two weeks’ time, will ensure authentic air quality information of Delhi to public at large.” The change is intended to ensure that the many government departments monitoring Delhi’s air “follow a uniform scientific calibration protocol and validation process.”
印度负 环境事务的部门周二发表声明称,“统一的系统预计最多两周后即可就位,该系统将确保全体民众获得德里空气质量的真实信息。”这一变化旨在确保 ,监测德里空气的许多政府部门“遵循统一的校准规范和验证程序”。
But B. Kumar, who retired in 2013 as an official of the Delhi pollution committee and who helped create the present monitoring method, said on Wednesday that the system had worked well.
但曾参 创建当前监测手段的B·库马 (B. Kumar)周三表 ,该系统一直运行良好。他曾在德里污染委员会供职,已于2013年退休
“It’s totally automatic, and the data is transferred directly from the machines to the website, so there’s nothing to authenticate,” said Mr. Kumar, who like many Indians uses an initial for his first name. “If they feel there is a problem, they could just check the equipment and see what needs to be solved.”
“完全 自动的,数据直接从机器传输到网站上,所以没什么可验证的,”库马尔说。“如果觉得存在问题,他们只需检查设备,看需要解决什么问题。”和很 多印度人一样,他用首字母代替自己的名字。
The new policy requires that Delhi’s data be sent for authentication to the Central Pollution Control Board, overseen by the national government, Mr. Kumar said.
库马尔 ,新政策要求将德里的数据发送给中央政府领导下的中央污染控制管理委员会(Central Pollution Control Board),进行 证。
“They just don’t want people to see the actual data,” Mr. Kumar said.
“他们 是不想让公众看到真实的数据,”库马尔说。
Mr. Kumar said no one works at the central board at night or on weekends, which he said would result in long delays before the information was made public.
库马尔 ,中央委员会在夜间和周末都没人值班,这会导致信息发布的严重滞后。
Sarath Guttikunda, director of Urban Emissions, an independent research group based in Delhi, also criticized the government’s decision, saying that instead of taking measures to improve Delhi’s air, officials are trying to suppress information about it.
设在德 的独立研究机构“城市排放”(Urban Emissions)的负责 萨拉斯·古提昆塔(Sarath Guttikunda),也谴 了政府的这一决定。他说,政府不仅没有采取措施改善德里的空气质量,还试图封锁相关的信息。
The city’s data is “not that reliable to begin with,” Dr. Guttikunda said. “And blocking that data from coming out in real time and somehow correcting it in some back office will only make it even more unreliable.”
这座城 的数据“本来就不那么可靠”,古提昆塔博士说。“阻止数据实时发布、在某个幕后的办公室进行修改,只会让它更加不可靠。”
Among the existing problems, Dr. Guttikunda said, are frequent, unexplained gaps in the data.
古提昆 说,目前的问题包括,经常出现不明原因的数据空白。
During a visit in January by President Obama, India signed an agreement that would bring to the country a system called AirNow, which is used in the United States to measure and quickly disseminate data about air quality. The United States Embassy in Delhi publishes information on its website from an air monitor on embassy grounds, although the data is averaged over a 24-hour period and does not provide a good snapshot of the air quality at any given moment.
奥巴马 统1月访问 度期间签署了一份协议,在印度引进了一种叫做Airnow的系统这一系统在美国被用来测量并快速分析空气质量数据。德里的美国大使馆在其网站上发布使馆空气检测器获得的信息。不过,它发布的数据是24小时内 平均值,不能良好地反映某个给定时刻的空气质量。
An estimated 1.5 million people die annually in India, about one-sixth of all Indian deaths, as a result of outdoor and indoor air pollution, a problem caused in part by the widespread use of cow dung as cooking fuel.
印度每 约有150万人死于室外和室内的空气污 ,占全部死亡人数的约六分之一。室内空气污 的一个原因是,印度普遍使用牛粪作为做饭的燃料。
The country has the world’s highest death rate from chronic respiratory diseases, and more deaths from asthma than any other nation, according to the World Health Organization. Air pollution also contributes to both chronic and acute heart disease, the leading cause of death in India.
世界卫生组织称,这个国家由慢性呼吸系统疾病导致的死亡人数居世界首位,哮喘导致的死亡人数也高于其他国家。空气污 还会促成慢性和急性心脏病,这是 印度人的主要死亡原因。
“People have the right to know whether the day’s air quality is good enough to go outside,” said Dr. Sundeep Salvi, director of the Chest Research Foundation in Pune. “If they don’t trust their monitors to provide good data, they should get new monitors. What they shouldn’t do is stop releasing the data.”
“人们 权知道外面的空气是否好到可以到户外活动,”浦那胸科研究基金会(Chest Research Foundation)的主任 蒂普·萨尔维(Sundeep Salvi)说,“ 果他们不信任自己的监测设备能提供准确的数据,就应该采用新的监测设备,而不是停止发布数据。”希尼尔翻译公
  2015-03-04

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