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 盘点各 高速公路收费(双语)

7月21日,交 运输部公布《收费公路管理条例》修订征求意见稿,目前正向社会公开征求意见,截止日期为今年8月20日。
  该 见稿中,最引人关注的点在于新稿调整了收费的期限。根据意见稿,政府收费公路中的高速公路将不再规定具体的收费期限,而是实行统借统还,以实 际偿债期为准,确定收费期限。
  至 特许经营高速公路,如果它满足投资规模大,回报周期长的特点,其经营期限可以约定超过30年,但 满足上述条件则不能超过。
  It's been reported that China will start charging highway tolls regularly for the long haul.
  The news comes as the Ministry of Transport releases a newly revised draft of rules on highway tolls. In the coming weeks until August 20, authorities will be soliciting public opinions on the draft.
  In one of the draft's highlights, the time limit for charging tolls placed by the government is removed. Instead, the highways could determine their own timeline according to their solvency on loans, a move that could make the charging periods longer.
  Additionally, the operating periods for franchised highways with large-scale investments and long payback periods are allowed to be extended beyond 30 years.
  现 条例如何规定?
  What Are the Current Rules on Highway Tolls?
  
  现 条例规定,政府还贷公路最长收费期限,在中西部省市不得超过20年,其 省市则不得超过15年;经 性公路最长收费期限,在中西部省市不得超过30年,其 省市则不得超过25年。
  According to the current regulations, the toll periods for highways run by the government are not to be longer than 20 years, while the franchised highways are not allowed to charge for more than 30 years.
  高 公路为何拟长期收费?
  Main Reason Behind Long-Term Toll
  
  专 表示,目前之所以高速公路要长期收费,很大的原因在于两个字——亏损。高速公路建设成本不断攀升,在规定期限内无法按时偿清贷款,因此高速公 路处于亏损状态。
  据 计,2014年,全 收费公路亏损1571.1亿元, 2013年翻了 2.4倍。
  One of the main reasons behind the change is that most highways in China are operating at a loss, while costs are rising and the operators cannot make loan payments on time.
  According to statistics, total losses incurred by highways across China have reached 150 billion Yuan, or around 24 billion US dollars, in 2014.
  网 反应
  Netizens' Reactions
  
  面 高速公路期限调整的消息,网友们反应不一。有人认为,长期收费有合理性,可以有效分流车流量,缓解交通压力。而有人则认为长期收费会让高速公 路变成“永久提款机”。
  对 专家表示,高速公路不会成为永久提款机,因为大部分高速公路处于巨额亏损,连还债都很困难,更不用说“提款”了。
  Some netizens think the change is reasonable, since it may help reduce traffic pressure on the highways, while others doubt that the highways may become 'permanent money withdrawal machines'.
  Many experts have defended the draft, saying it's impossible for the highways to become 'money withdrawal machines', since many of them can't even clear their debts.
  其 举措
  Other Measures
  
  目 ,对收费公路,民众的期待与呼吁用六个字就可以概括:提速,降费,透明。
  为 满足民众的需求,意见稿规定,“收费道口的设置和开放应符合车辆快速通行的需要”,同时要求“利用新技术推行不停车收费,逐渐减少人工收费方 式”,提高通行效率。此外,意见稿还特别要求收费公路的信息公开,经营者要定期向社会公布年度通行费、年度还本付息、养护、运营管理、税费等 用支出等信息。
  For a long time, many people have hoped China's highways will offer 'higher speed, lower tolls and more transparency', since the tolls are sometimes too high and the roads may become congested, especially on holidays, causing serious traffic jams.
  According to the draft, new technologies may be applied to charge vehicles without stopping them, which can increase the efficiency of the highways.
  Additionally, the operators of the turnpikes are required to release their annual expenses to the public, in an attempt to make the turnpikes' information transparent.
  国 高速公路如何收费?
  Highways Charging Measures in Other Countries
  美
  In the United States:
  
  美 高速公路极少收费,收费路段占全国高速公路的比例只有大约十分之一。
  美 目前已建成的高速公路基本上靠政府税收,在建设时,联邦政府出资修建所花的费用占总费用的90%。而联 政府的资金由“联邦公路信托基金”提供,其资金来源为机动车的燃油税,购置税和使用税。
  因 联邦财政出资的缘故,高速公路被视作公共产品,理应免费。
  In the United States, only 10 percent of the highways are toll-based.
  Highways across the U.S. are mainly funded with government revenues.
  The federal government provides 90 percent of the investments on building highways, and the funding comes from the Federal Highway Trust Fund, which is supported by vehicles' fuel taxes, purchase taxes and users' taxes.
  Thus, highways in America are regarded as free public services.
  德
  In Germany:
  
  根 法律规定,德国高速公路只对重量超过12吨(含 车)的货车收费。德国人认为,大货车对公路的损害程度更大,而且排放更多,造成环境污染,所以理应负担公路维护和环保成本。
  In Germany, only trucks and vans weighing over 12 tons are charged on highways.
  It's believed that trucks could cause more serious damages on roads and discharge more waste, causing more pollution.
  法
  In France:
  
  法 四分之三的高速公路都是特许经营公路,意味着要收取通行费。过路费的标准由公司和法国环境与可持续发展部下属的基础设施局协商而定。经营公司 不得随意涨价。
  About 75 percent of the highways in France are permitted to operate as franchises, which means they could charge tolls.
  The standard of tolls are negotiated between the highway's operators and the infrastructure bureau, under the environment and sustainable development authorities.
  The operators are prohibited from randomly increasing the tolls.

 

希尼尔 译公司  2015-07-23

 

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