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新法案 制业余出租车,优步滴滴前景暗淡(中英 语)

青岛希 尔翻译公司(www..cn)整理 布2015-11-12

希尼尔 译公司(www..cn)2015年11月12日了解 :中国最新制定的关于私家车呼叫服务的条款严重打击了滴滴,快滴和 步等公司。旧草案要求打的服务像传统出租车公司一样运行,该法案已经违反了法律并引起了公共行政机关专家的反对。他们呼吁对于这些软件和整体 分享的利益有一个更开放的态度。China’s latest draft regulations on private car-hailing services may seriously harm companies such as Didi Kuaidi and Uber. The conservative draft, which requires car-hailing services to operate more like traditional taxi companies, has drawn opposition from legal and public administration experts. They have called for a more open attitude to these apps and the sharing economy in general.

Winter might be coming for car-hailing apps in China - if recent draft regulations on private car-hailing services put forward by China’s transport authorities become a reality.

如果最 起草的由中国交通局提出的关于私家车呼叫服务法案通过的话,冬天将迎来打的高峰期。

Despite vocal objections from experts, industry insiders and the public, the Ministry of Transport said those who support the new regulations outnumber those who object, according to its latest analysis of all the comments it has received in the past month.

尽管有 自于专家,业内人士和公众的反对,交通运输部表示,根据上个月收到的评论的最新分析,支持的人远超过反对的人。

The draft regulations have been open for public consultation since October 10, and experts, car-hailing companies and government officials have engaged in discussions over whether they will help regulate an industry that has long lacked clear legal standing, or nip an innovative industry in the bud.

草案自10月10日开始 开征询公众意见,专家人士,打的公司,政府官员都参与讨论是否他们会帮助调节这一行业一直缺乏明确的法律规定,或是否 将创新型行业扼杀在萌芽状态。

At the center of the debate is a conflict between a traditional, State run system and a more self-reliant, decentralized Internet-enabled system. Most experts believe that the current draft, favoring the traditional taxi industry model, will land a severe blow on Didi Kuaidi and Uber, whose major source of service providers have been private cars and private car owners.

辩论的 心是关于传统的国内运行系统与更独立,分散的网络系统之间的冲突。大多数专家认为,目前的 案支持的是传统的出租车行业模型,这将严 打击滴滴,快滴,优步, 些公司服务提供商的主要来源是私家车和私人车主。

Take the wheel

驾驶

Car-hailing services currently occupy a grey legal area in China.

打的服 目前占据中国法律的灰色地带

Although private taxis are technically illegal in China, they generally find it easy to operate despite occasional crackdowns from local governments.

在中国 家车作为出租车是非法的,尽管偶尔遭受地方政府的打击,但他们一般都很容易操作。

The draft, if passed, will likely force such services to act more like traditional taxi companies - firms like Didi Kuaidi and Uber, will need to acquire licenses, sign employment contracts with drivers, register and set up offices in all the areas where their services are provided - which will significantly add their operating costs. They will also have to hand over their ability to set prices to local governments.

如果草 通过,它将可能迫使这些服务公司表现得更类似于传统的出租车公司。像嘀嘀,快滴,优步等公司将需要获得许可证,与司机签订劳动合同,登记以及 在服务区设立办事处。这都将大大增加他们的运营成本。他们还将必须把定价的权利移交给政府。

Drivers, on the other hand, will have to take government-organized tests. They will also need to register their cars as vehicles for hire. Under China’s laws, this means their cars will have to leave the road after eight years of service. This will likely scare private car owners away from the car-hailing business as it significantly shortens their car’s lifespan.

另一方 ,司机将必须参加政府组织的测试。他们还需要将车登记为租用车辆。根据中国的法律,这意味着八年服务期之后他们的汽车将报废。这有可能会吓到 私家车车主,因为打的产业明显会缩短汽车寿命。

To obtain the qualification, drivers need to take two exams. One on driving principles and practical abilities, each lasting an hour. The latter exam involves car safety inspections and emergency rescue skills, among others.

为了获 资格证,司机需要参加两场考试。一个是驾驶原理和实践能力考试,持续一个小时。另一个是汽车安全检查和紧急救援技能考试。

"The authorities are still using an old mindset, that taxis are taxis and private cars are private cars, erecting a huge barrier between the two. Any private car has to obtain a taxi license before they can be hired," Zhou Qiren, Dean of the National School of Development of Peking University, told Caixin Weekly.

周奇仁 北京大学国家发展研究院院长,告诉财新周刊,官方仍在使用一种旧的思维模式,即出租车是出租车,私家车是私家车,两者之间存在一个巨大的屏障 。任何私家车出租之前必须获得出租车牌照。

The regulations came just two days after Shanghai, long considered a pioneer in China’s economic reforms, became the first city in China to give legal status to a car-hailing company. It issued a license to Didi Kuaidi, the leading car-hailing company in China, on October 8.

该草案 台仅仅2天,上 ,一直以来被看作是中国经济改革的先锋,成为了第一个给予出租车呼叫公司合法地位的城市。10月8号,作 中国打的公司的领军品牌,滴滴快的获得了许可证。

Didi Kuaidi said in an announcement at the time that it was also in talks with other city governments about getting licenses, and other car-hailing companies said that they were in talks with the Shanghai government about the possibility of receiving a license. This raised the possibility that car-hailing services might soon see an expansion in China as more cities follow suit and legalize them.

同时, 滴宣布正在与其他城市的政府谈判获得许可证事项。其他打的公司表示,他们在与上海政府谈判关于获得许可证的可能性。随着更多的城市效仿和它们 的合法化,打的服务可能很快就会看到其在中国的扩大。

But the Ministry of Transport draft has put an end to this possibility. Sun Jianping, a Shanghai traffic official, later said that the city will strictly follow national guidelines, but will enact more liberal measures in areas where the local government has authority to do so. This means that Shanghai will suspend its current plan for car-hailing apps until the national guidelines are officially decided.

然而交 运输部的法案否定了这一可能。苏建平,上海交通官员之后表示,城市将严格遵循国家的指导方针,但在地方政府有权这样做的地方,将制定更宽松的 措施。这意味着上海将暂停当前汽车呼叫应用计划,直到国家指导方针正式确定。

Road rage

公路暴

Didi Kuaidi tactfully expressed its disapproval of the guidelines through a polite public response. In three bullet points, it argued that the government should leave more room for part-time drivers and cars, which make up 75 percent of the drivers registered on Didi Kuaidi. Taking less than four trips a day on average, they are the driving force behind the growth of car-hailing services, it said.

滴滴快 通过一个礼貌的公开回应婉转地表达了对于该政策的反对。在三个方面,它认为政府应该给予兼职司机和汽车更多的空间,这些构成了滴滴注册司机的 75%。他们 均每天载客四次以内,是汽车呼叫服务增长背后的驱动力,它说到。

"It is them who have made it easier to hail cabs. If the cars need to register as vehicles for hire and part-time drivers must take qualification tests, most drivers, along with their cars, will likely quit our platform, and it will be once again difficult for people to call a cab," the company said.

公司说 “他们的存在使得人们更容易呼叫计程车。如果汽车作为租用车需要登记注册且兼职司机必须参加资格考试的话,大多数司机和车辆,可能会退出我们 的平台,人们呼叫计程车将再次变得困难。”

With investors including the China Investment Corporation - China’s sovereign wealth fund - and Alibaba, Didi Kuaidi is considered to have the biggest say in China’s taxi hailing app market, compared with other smaller or foreign players. Other companies are more discreet.

投资者 ,包括中国国家投资公司—中国的主权财富基金和阿里巴巴认为,与其他小公司和外国公司相比,滴滴在中国打车APP市场最 有发言权,其他公司较为差之。

Liu Zhen, who oversees US-based Uber’s China strategy, told thepaper.cn earlier that she has no objection to the guidelines. "In our operations in over 350 cities worldwide, we have more or less faced the same questions of our business preceding policymaking, and how the two should adapt to each other," she said, adding that the company has handed its comments to the Ministry of Transport.

刘真, 督了美国的优步在中国的战略,他早前告诉报社,他不反对这项政策。在全球超过350个城市 运营中,我们或多或少都面临着业务前的政策制定,以及两家公司的业务是如何适应的类似问题。”她说,公司已经把意见递交给了交通运输部。

Among the dozens of guidelines laid out in the draft, the ones that require private cars to be registered as taxis came under attack the most from experts. "The regulation has nothing to do with the sharing economy that is embraced by car-hailing services, because it forbids private cars to be shared, and copies the old system in which the government used to manage taxis," Wang Jun, associate professor at the China University of Political Science and Law, told Caixin Weekly.Wang is one of 12 more liberal experts in law, public administration and urban planning who signed an open letter last month objecting to the regulations. The letter said there are several major flaws in the guidelines and they should not be approved.

王俊, 国政法大学的副教授,告诉财新周刊,在草案中规定的几十个准则中,那些要求私家车登记为出租车的制度受到了来自专家的攻击。该制度与打车服务 带来的分享经济并无关系,因为它禁止私家车分享与模仿政府用于管理出租车的旧制度。王先生是在法律,公共管理和城市规划方面的12位自由 家之一,他上月签署了一封反对该制度的公开信。信中说,在该制度中有几个不应该被批准的主要缺陷。

"No one will share their new, good cars if they need to be discarded in eight years, and this means car-hailing companies will not be able to provide better cars and services," an industry insider told Caixin Weekly. Cities like Nanjing and Harbin have all previously launched high-end taxis, but these projects have mostly failed due to high operating costs and the fixed 8-year lifespan for cabs that makes it even more difficult for the earnings to cover the costs.The requirement for car-hailing companies to set up offices in every city or county where they operate was also considered absurd by the 12 experts. "Considering they are Internet-based, car-hailing platforms are naturally open to the entire nation. … It’s hard to imagine taobao.com or JD.com being required to set up branches in every county or city where their products are sent to," the letter read.

一位业 人士告诉财新周刊,如果八年之后车将会废弃的话,没有人愿意分享他们的新车,这意味着打车公司将无法提供更好的汽车和服务。”城市,像南京和 哈尔滨,都曾推出高档出租车,但这些项目大多由于高昂的经营成本和固定8年寿命 失败。这也使得覆盖成本来获取收益更加困难。专家认为,要求打车公司在他们运营的每一个城市或县设立办事处,简直是荒唐的。信中提到,“考虑 到他们都是基于互联网,打车平台自然应该开放给整个国家……。很难想象要求淘宝或京东在他们的产品送到的每一个县或市设立分支机构。

"The guidelines ... have a strong inclination to favor the interests of the ministry," according to the letter, referring to the apparent pro-taxi bias. The letter also said the Ministry of Transport should not be the only ministry to draft car-hailing regulations, but should work with telecommunications, public security, commerce and banking authorities, among others.

“该政 很大程度上倾向于支持该部的利益。”信中所说,指的是明显的专车偏见。信中还说,交通运输部不应是起草打车法规的唯一部门,应与电信,公安, 商业和银行业务部门一起参与。

Zhang Xiaoyu, associate law professor at the Chinese Academy of Governance, said in a public post,"We need to reflect on our backward management of traditional taxis, instead of putting shackles on an emerging industry and turning them into traditional taxis. This isn’t fair play." In its public comment, Didi Kuaidi also expressed its wish for the central government to offer local governments room to explore their own management of Internet car-hailing services, citing the Shanghai model as a practical and open-minded example. "We hope the revised regulations could follow and promote the momentum of China’s sharing economy," it said.

张晓雨 中国治理学会法律教授,在一次公共演讲时说,“我们需要反思传统落后的出租车管理形式,而不是把它束缚在一个新兴产业上,把他们变成传统的出 租车。这不公平。” 在大众 评上,滴滴快的也表达了它的期望:中央政府应给地方政府更多自由空间来探索自己的互联网打车服务管理模式,引用上海作为一个实用开放的例子。 “我们希望这一修正后的法规能促进中国经济的发展势头。”它说。

Apparent support

明确的 持

According to the Ministry of Transport, however, more people - 440 commenters - are in favor of private cars registering as taxis than those who aren’t, who sent in a total of 379 comments, according to People’s Daily Online. Another 27 comments said the category of "online booked cars" should be created, and these cars should be given more than 8 years on the road.

据人民 报在线报道,交通运输部统计,然而,赞成私家车登记为出租车的评论家比反对的多出440位,他 总共发送了379条评论 另外27条评论 为,应该创造“在线预订汽车”种类,这些汽车应该给予8年以上 寿命。

As to whether drivers should obtain qualifications, 126 commenters are in favor as opposed to 66 commenters who think it’s not necessary.The Ministry of Transport says it will revise the current draft based on these comments.

至于司 是否应该取得资格证,126人赞成 66人反对 反对者认为这是没有必要的。交通运输部表示,将根据这些评论修订现行的草案。

Wang Limei, vice chairman of the China Road Transport Association, said the new regulations are merely following what the entire road transport industry needs to comply with, that is, that cars, drivers and service operators should all meet certain qualifications. "The main purpose of the draft is public safety, and regulating qualifications will help boost that," she told Caixin Weekly.

王丽梅 中国道路运输协会的副主席,她告诉财新周刊,新的法规几乎遵循整个道路运输行业需要遵守的条款,也就是说,汽车,司机和服务人员都应该满足一 定的条件。”该草案的主要目的是保障公共安全,规范资格证将有助于推动其正常运行。”
来源:环球时

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