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中国被 试图弱化全球气候协议 (中英 语)

青岛希 尔翻译公司(www..cn)整理 布2015-12-10

希尼尔 译公司(www..cn)2015年12月10日了解 :As Beijing declared its first “red alert” for heavy smog this week, closing schools and curbing car use, Chinese negotiators at UN talks in Paris are being accused of trying to weaken a global climate accord due to be finalised by Friday. 就在北 本周首次启动空气重污染“红色预警”、关闭学校并限制汽车使用之际,中国谈判代表在巴黎联合国气候会议上被指试图弱化定于周五敲定的全球气候 协议。(上图图右为参加巴黎气候大会的中国气候变化事务特别代表、中国代表团团长解振华在巴黎的一次新闻发布会上)

“It is very frustrating,” said one negotiator from a developed country after a meeting where he said Chinese officials had tried to water down efforts to create a common system for the way countries reported to the UN on their carbon dioxide emissions and climate change plans. “这非 令人沮丧,”某个发达国家的一名谈判代表说。他表示,在稍早前召开的一个会上,中国官员试图弱化国际社会创建一套共同制度的努力,该制度将统 一各国向联合国报告其二氧化碳排放和气候变化计划的方式。

Another envoy said Chinese delegates were also resisting a measure widely seen as crucial for a successful accord: a requirement for countries to update the pledges to limit their emissions, preferably every five years from about 2020. 另一名 使表示,中国代表还抵制一项被广泛视为对成功协议至关重要的措施:要求各国更新其限制排放的承诺,最好从2020年左右 始每五年一次。

The envoy said China was supporting a general stocktaking review of countries’ pledges every five years but wanted any updating of the carbon dioxide emissions reduction targets contained in these plans to be voluntary. 这名特 表示,中国支持每五年一次对各国的承诺进行总体盘点,但希望在自愿基础上对这些计划所含的二氧化碳减排目标作出任何更新。

Heat-trapping carbon dioxide is an invisible greenhouse gas that differs from the soot and smog choking Beijing, but the two pollutants typically come from the same sources, such as coal-fired power plants. 具有吸 效果的二氧化碳是一种不可见的温室气体,不同于给北京带来空气污染的烟灰和烟雾,但这两类污染物通常来自相同来源,如燃煤电厂。

Beijing’s negotiating stance was causing anxiety among many delegates yesterday as the Paris talks intensified ahead of Friday’s deadline, partly because India was expected to be a bigger obstacle to a successful agreement. 随着周 的最后期限逐渐临近,巴黎会议加紧了谈判,但北京方面的谈判立场昨日导致很多与会代表精神焦虑,部分原因是人们曾以为印度会成为成功协议的更 大障碍。

Narendra Modi, India prime minister, weighed into one of the most divisive issues of the conference on the eve of the two-week meeting, writing in the Financial Times that wealthy countries that “powered their way to prosperity on fossil fuel” had a moral duty to lead the fight against climate change. 印度总 纳伦德拉?莫迪(Narendra Modi)在为期 周的巴黎会议开幕前夕介入分歧最大的议题之一,他在英国《金融时报》撰文表示,“当年依靠化石燃料实现富裕”的发达国家,有道义责任带头应对 气候变化。

In contrast, China president Xi Jinping has garnered public credit for a series of bold climate vows before the Paris meeting. He made a joint announcement with Barack Obama, his US counterpart, on Beijing’s plans to combat global warming and later pledged to launch a national carbon trading system as early as 2017. 与此相 ,巴黎会议前一系列大胆的气候誓言使中国国家主席习近平赢得了赞誉。他与美国总统巴拉克?奥巴马(Barack Obama)发表了 份联合声明,阐述北京方面应对全球变暖的计划,后来又承诺最快在2017年推出 个全国碳交易体系。

In Paris, however, one delegate said that behind closed doors, India had been “quite helpful” on some measures while China’s negotiators had been siding with other developing countries on several divisive issues, including a push to provide more information about the volume of each country’s emissions. 但据一 与会代表透露,在巴黎举行的闭门谈判期间,印度在一些措施上“相当配合”,而中国谈判代表在数个分歧问题(包括要求各国提供关于排放量的更多 信息的努力)上与其他发展中国家站在一边。

Under rules dating back to 1992, China has been classed as a developing country that has not been obliged to report to the UN on its carbon emissions as regularly as older industrialised nations, a situation the US and most other developed countries say must be changed in the Paris climate agreement. 根据可 溯到1992年的规 ,中国被列为发展中国家,迄今没有义务像更早工业化的国家那样定期向联合国报告碳排放量。美国和其他大多数发达国家表示,巴黎气候协议必须改 变这种局面。

China, the world’s biggest carbon emitter, has for example only given the UN two “national communications” reports since 1992, detailing its emissions and what it was doing to limit them. Its latest report was in 2012 but contained only 2005 emissions data. 例如, 排放量全球最大的中国,自1992年以来 向联合国提交了两份《国家信息通报》,介绍其排放情况以及它在采取什么措施限制排放。其最新报告是在2012年提交 ,但仅包含2005年的排 数据。

Wealthy countries are required to produce such reports regularly, along with other data that are then subjected to a review. 富裕国 需要定期提交这样的报告,以及随后要接受审议的其他数据。

They argue that because developing countries are responsible for a growing share of global emissions, the reporting and monitoring system needs to be updated. 这些国 提出,由于发展中国家占全球排放量的比重越来越大,因此报告和监测制度需要更新。

China accounts for 27 per cent of carbon emissions and India is the fourth biggest emitter with just over 7 per cent of the global total. 中国占 球碳排放的27%,印度 全球第四大排放国,占比略微超过7%。

“You need to have those basic elements of [emissions] inventories, reporting and review on the developing country side as well,” said Todd Stern, US climate envoy, adding the reporting done by developing countries at the moment was “at a pretty rudimentary level”. “你需 对发展中国家也有这些基本要素,包括(排放量)清单、报告和审议,”美国气候变化问题特使托德?斯特恩(Todd Stern)表示。 补充说,目前发展中国家所做的报告处于“相当粗糙的水平”。

China does produce domestic emissions data, some of which experts question, but is often reluctant to divulge information on the basis of international agreements. 中国确 发布国内排放量数据(其中一些受到专家质疑),但往往不愿根据国际协议发布信息。

In a sign of the tensions growing in private meetings this week, Miguel Arias Ca?ete, EU climate commissioner, said that although Mr Xi and other world leaders had called for strong climate action at the opening of the Paris talks, “things are much more complex” inside the negotiating rooms. 本周闭 会议上气氛日益紧张的迹象之一是,欧盟气候专员米格尔?阿里亚 ?卡涅特(Miguel Arias Ca?ete)表示, 管习近平和其他世界领导人在巴黎会议开幕日呼吁采取强有力的气候行动,但在谈判室里面“情况复杂得多”。

Meanwhile, a public war of words intensified yesterday over another fraught reporting issue in the talks: a 2009 pledge wealthy countries made to deliver $100bn a year by 2020 to help developing countries deal with climate change. 与此同 ,一场公开的口水战昨日升温,其症结是另一个不愉快的报告问题:富裕国家曾在2009年承诺 将在2020年之前 年拿出1000亿美元 助发展中国家应对气候变化。

Prakash Javadekar, India’s environment minister, said developed countries “have not made much headway” towards the target and questioned a recent OECD study that concluded as much as $62bn in funding from public and private sources was delivered in 2014. Wealthy countries, meanwhile, said because much more money had been pledged before the Paris meeting that the tally for 2020 was now more than $90bn. 印度环 部长普拉卡什?雅瓦德 尔(Prakash Javadekar)表示, 达国家向着这个目标“没有取得多大进展”,他还质疑经合组织(OECD)最近的 项研究,该研究的结论是,2014年到位 公共和私人部门资金达到620亿美元 与此同时,富裕国家表示,由于各方在巴黎会议之前作出了数额大得多的承诺,2020年的援 总额现在已超过900亿美元

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