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快速机 跑道修复方法介绍Rapid Runway Repair Introduction

原创文 :青岛希 尔翻译公 http://www..cn

2014-11-17

(非涉 内容)

Concept:

 The Air Force flies and fights from its air bases. However, it is at the air base that air power is most vulnerable. They can be most immediate and lucrative targets for an adversary. After all, it is by far more effective to destroy aircraft while they are on the ground than to hunt them in the air. From a practical perspective, it is reasonable to say that during some phase of a conventional conflict, repair of airfield pavement damage will be one of the civil engineer’s primary wartime missions. It is a complex and difficult tasking that requires the total commitment of all involved to succeed. Proper preparation must be accomplished prior to the moment of need…for time will not be available during the conflict to accomplish meaningful training.

Background:

American military leaders recognized the vital need for airfields to support operations in all theaters of operation. This could mean repairing and maintaining existing airfields quickly and at times close to the front as possible. To provide this level of support, Aviation engineers experimented with several different runway materials. For example the attempt to construct and repair airfields with wooden planks proved too costly and labor intensive. Precast concrete was another alternative but after extended testing it was too heavy and not feasible. However, work continued and by the mid 1990’s HQ Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency (AFCESA) had perfected the Folded Fiberglass Mat (FFM) System that is the primary method now employed Air Force wide.

Description:

The Folded Fiberglass Mat (FFM)  is the current Airfield Damage Repair (ADR) method used for Rapid Runway Repair. The FFM is a 30 ft. by 54 ft panel. Each FFM panel consist of 9 independent 6 foot by 30 foot composite panels joined by rubber hinges. The NSN for this product is 5680-01-368-9032. Each FFM Kit consist of two 30 foot by 54 foot FFM’s and two each 24 foot by 2 foot joining panels and two each 30 foot by 2 foot joining panels.

Application:

After an attack the RRR team receives its order to proceed to the repair location. The damaged is then assessed. The upheaval and dunnage is removed. The bomb crater is back filled with crushed stone and the FFM assembly is towed over the filled crater and anchored to the airfield pavement. The FFM prevents the fill from becoming foreign object debris (FOD) . Once in place the FFM makes for a virtually flush pavement repair. The FFM’s have been tested to be effective for all fighter jets and heavies up to the C-130.  A detailed description of the crater repair and FFM installation is described below.

Airfield Damage Repair part  A: Filling the Crater

 

 Crushed Stone Repair Procedures.

 

(1) Clear debris from around the crater at least 6 meters (20 feet) in all

directions to allow identification of the upheaved pavement surface. Identification and removal of all upheaval or damaged pavement is critical. It cannot be rolled down flush with the existing pavement and left. The upheaved pavement will eventually break up and create additional problems adjacent to the crater repair.

(2) Perform profile measurement and visual inspection to identify and mark

upheaval around the crater.

(3) Remove upheaved pavement using an excavator with bucket or moil

point attachment, and the front-end loader. The dozer may also be used, depending on the runway surface.

(4) All debris material in excess of 304 millimeters (12 inches) must be

removed or reduced in size. Breaking the pavement into smaller pieces will minimize the potential for voids and settling problems in the future.

(5) Push unusable debris at least 9 meters (30 feet) off the Minimum Operating Strip (MOS) and pile no higher than 0.9 meter (3 feet).

(6) Place backfill material into the crater in accordance with the repair

procedure chosen. Note: If settling problems are anticipated, placement of membrane fabric between dissimilar backfill materials is recommended.

(7) Fill and compact the crater with crushed stone material, placing it in lifts

approximately 152 to 177 millimeters (6 to 7 inches) thick. For C-17 operations, limit the aggregate size to a maximum of 25 millimeters (1 inch) in the top 152 millimeters (6 inches) of the crushed stone repair. Overfill the crater by approximately 76 millimeters (3 inches) above the original pavement surface height. Compact each lift of crushed stone using a minimum of four passes of a single drum vibratory roller or two passes

with a 10-ton vibratory roller. One pass of the roller means traveling across and back in the same lane. If the crushed stone material is placed upon soft subgrade materials, it may be beneficial to separate the material using geomembrane fabric and place the crushed stone material in thicker lifts. In any case, the crushed stone should be

compacted with a minimum of four passes of a single drum vibratory roller or two passes of a 10-ton vibratory roller per each 152 millimeters (6 inches) of thickness. A 457-millimeter (18-inch) crushed stone layer should receive a minimum of 12 passes with a single drum vibratory roller or six passes with a 10-ton vibratory roller prior to cut for the final grade.

(8) Grade the compacted crushed stone to approximately 25 millimeters (1

inch) above the pavement surface.

(9) Compact the crushed stone using two passes of a single drum vibratory roller or one pass with a 10-ton vibratory roller. The crushed stone layer should have a minimum 15 CBR to support C-130 and fighter jet operations.

(10) Perform profile measurement. The repaired crater must not exceed the

maximum RQC of ± 19 millimeters (± 0.75 inch). A repair outside this tolerance may still be useable, depending on its location, but will have a much shorter life before requiring additional maintenance to bring it back within this limitation.

(11) The crushed stone repair is complete at this point.

 

Airfiled Damage Repair part B: Installing the FFM 

 

 Air Force FFM.

 

 Air Force FFM is manufactured by ReadyMat US LLC Inc., 337-528-3443.

 The FFM is air-transportable, can be moved easily by vehicles, can be

positioned at greater distances from airfield pavement surfaces, and can be stored indoors out of the elements.

 A standard FFM weighs about 1360 kilograms (3,000 pounds) and consists of nine fiberglass panels, each 1.83 meters wide by 9.14 meters long by 12.7 millimeters thick (6 feet wide by 30 feet long by 0.30 inch thick nominally). Elastomer hinges 76.2 millimeters (3 inches) wide connect the panels. When folded, these mats are 1.83 meters wide by 9.14 meters long and 203 to 254 millimeters thick (6 feet wide by 30 feet long and 8 to10 inches thick). This repair system also includes joining panels and two support mat kits. The joining panels come in 7.32-meter and 9.14-meter (24-foot and 30-foot) lengths. One of each size is needed to connect two 9.14-meter by 16.46-meter (30-foot by 54 -foot) mats. The resulting 16.46-meter by 18.29-meter (54-foot by 60-foot) mat is the normal size suitable for most crater repairs. If larger FOD covers are required, additional mats may be spliced together. There are two types of support mat kits for the FFM. Mat Kit A contains all the necessary tools and hardware required to assemble, install, and maintain the system. Mat Kit B contains the anchor bolts required to attach the mat to the pavement surface.

(1) The mat assembly area can be any area near the crater repair. This area must be cleared of all debris and swept. It must be large enough to accommodate the unfolding of both mats, allow equipment operations around the mat, and not interfere with crater preparations. This area should be approximately 30.4 meters by 30.4meters (100 feet by 100 feet) square, and located a minimum of 30.4 meters (100 feet) from the crater and off the MAOS.

(2) Mats are placed end-to-end about 1.2 meters (4 feet) apart, with the first panel up and positioned such that both mats unfold in the same direction. Unfold the mats in preparation for being joined together. The top panel of the mat is attached to a tow vehicle with a nylon strap. A crew of four people, or a forklift positioned on the opposite side of the mat, lifting each successive panel as the mat is being pulled open, speeds the unfolding process.

(3)Join the mats together so they are aligned, the 9.14-meter (30-foot) edges are even, and the 16.46-meter (54-foot) edges are roughly parallel with each other. Lift one end of the 16.46-meter (54-foot) edge and slip either the 7.32-meter (24-foot) or the 9.14-meter (30-foot) section of joining panel underneath the raised edge. Align the holes in the mat with the joining panel bushing holes and lower the mat. Install the top joining bushings and tighten by hand. This process is repeated at the other end of the 16.46-meter (54-foot) edge of the same mat using the remaining joining panel. Hand-tighten these bushings; final tightening will be accomplished later.The second mat is then towed over to the first mat with joining panel attached. One of the holes near the end of the second mat is aligned with its counterpart on the joining panel and a top joining bushing is installed. This end connection acts as a pivot point when the second mat is moved into position so all the remaining holes on the joining panel are in alignment.

(4)Install the remaining top bushing and tighten the entire second mat bushing with an impact wrench. Revert to the first top joining bushings and tighten them with the impact wrench. All joining bushings should be tightened and the joined mats are now ready to be towed over the repaired crater.

(5)Before any towing operation can commence, the area between the mat

assembly area and the repaired crater must be completely swept. Any debris that is picked up under the mat as it is being towed could damage the matting and affect the smoothness of the repair.

When the width of the MAOS permits, the mat should be towed parallel to and next to the crater. Align the joining panel with the center of the crater. Use a front-end loader or similar vehicle to tow the mat over the crater with the hinges perpendicular to the tow direction. Position the mat so the hinges are parallel to the direction of the MAOS traffic. The mat should not be more than 5 degrees off parallel.

(6) With the mat in position over the crater, it must be anchored in place. Techniques for anchoring the FFM will depend on the type of pavement surface. The FFMs are predrilled for anchoring bolts. All three anchoring techniques use a 101.6-millimeter (4-inch) bushing through which the bolt passes to hold down the mat.

Concrete Pavements. The concrete anchor is normally a rock bolt that is

127 to 152.4 millimeters long and 15.9 to 19.1 millimeters in diameter (5 to 6 inches long and 0.625 to 0.75 inch in diameter). At each predrilled hole in the leading and trailing edges of the mat, drill a hole into the pavement corresponding to the diameter of the bolt being used. Position an anchor bushing in the predrilled hole as a guide for centering the drill bit. The depth of the hole must be at least 12 millimeters (0.5 inch) longer than the length of the bolt. Clean out the drill cutting with compressed air and insert the bolt through the bushing. Stand on the mat and bushings and tighten the bolt

with an impact wrench.

Asphalt-overlaid Concrete Pavements. Asphalt-overlaid concrete usually

entails using a rock bolt that is 241.3 millimeters long and 15.9 to 19.1 millimeters in diameter (9.5 inches long and 0.625 to 0.75 inch in diameter). The installation procedure is the same as those for all-concrete pavements. The key factor in this installation is to ensure the bolt has been set deep enough into the concrete layer for a firm grip.

Asphalt Pavements. Anchoring in asphalt pavement requires a 241.3-

millimeter (9.5-inch) bolt and polymer. A hole 254 millimeters deep and 38 millimeters in diameter (10 inches deep and 1.5 inches in diameter) is drilled at the center of each predrilled mat hole. A two-part resin polymer is mixed and poured into each hole to about 38 millimeters (0.5 inch) below the surface of the pavement. An anchor bushing and bolt are immediately placed into each hole and pressed firmly (standing on the bolt and bushing) against the mat. The polymer will harden in about three minutes. Unless

extra people are available, there may not be time to drill all the holes before beginning to pour the polymer. Drilling and setting the bolts are usually accomplished concurrently..

(7)Surface Roughness. The final grade of the repair must be checked using

line-of-sight profile measurement stanchions, upheaval posts, or string lines to ensure the repair meets surface roughness criteria contained in T.O. 35E2-4-1. Procedures are described in T.O. 35E2-5-1, Crushed-Stone Crater Repair and Line-Of-Sight Profile

Measurement for Rapid Runway Repair.

FOD covers should be no more than 5 degrees off parallel with the runway

centerline.

(8)Check connection bolts and verify that all connections between panels are tight and secure.Check anchor bolts and verify that all bolts are secure and that the FOD cover is held snugly against the pavement surface. In taxiway and apron applications, the leading and trailing edges of the FOD cover must be anchored. The side edges must also be anchored if the cover is located in an area where aircraft will be required to turn.

(9) Clean-up.. For all repair methods, verify that the repair and adjacent area is cleared of any excess repair materials.

概念:

空军是 空军基地起飞然后开展战斗的。然而,空军基地是空军最易遭受进攻的地方。空军基地是敌人最直接最有利的攻击目标,毕竟,迄今为止,飞行器在地 面的时候比它们在天空中的时候更容易被摧毁。从现实角度来说,在常规冲突阶段,修复被破坏的机场人行道将是土木工程师战时的首要任务。这个任 复杂而艰巨,需要所有参与工作的人都全力以赴,还要提前做好准备工作,因为打仗的时候不可能有时间进行有效培训。

背景:

美国军 领导人认识到机场支持军事行动的极大重要性,包括迅速维修现有机场,如有可能不定时地向前方关闭机场。为了提供这种水平的支持,航空工程师们 用几种不同的机场跑道材料做过实验。比如,尝试用厚木板建设和维修跑道,这样费用太高,也太耗费人力;用预浇铸混凝土是另一个办法,长期试验 明这种材料太重,不灵活。实验工作继续进行,20世纪90年代中 ,美国空军土木工程支持局(AFCESA)总部找 了完善的答案:可折叠 璃纤维垫(FFM)系统 成了当今空军领域应用最广泛的方法。

说明

可折叠 璃纤维垫(FFM)系统 目前的机场损害修复方法,用于快速修复跑道。可折叠玻璃纤维垫是一种规格为30x54英尺的板材 每块板材由9块互相 立的以橡胶铰链连接的6x30英尺的复合 组成。该产品的NSN编号是5680-01-368-9032。每个 品套装包括230x54英尺板材,224x2英尺的连接 板材和两块30x2英尺的连接 板材。

应用:

受到进 后,跑道迅速修复小组就接到命令奔赴需修复地点。首先确定受损程度,去掉隆起部分和垫舱料。用碎石回填弹坑,把FFM系统拖 已填满的弹坑上方并固定在机场人行道上。FFM系统能 止填充物变成异物残骸(FOD)。一旦 置稳妥,人行道就平平整整了。事实证明FFM系统适 于所有战斗机和一直到C-130的重型 机。下面还有更详细的弹坑修复以及FFM安装方 的描述。

机场修 第一步 填充弹坑

碎石修 程序

(1) 弹坑四 至少620英尺)范围 的残骸必须清理掉,这样才能确认隆起路面的情况。一定要确认并清除路面上隆起的或者被损坏的部分,绝不能 是把路面轧平就不管了,否则 起的路面迟早会裂开,在修复的弹坑附近又成了问题。

(2) 进行轮 测量和视觉检测确认弹坑周围的隆起部分并做标记。

(3)用挖掘 和前卸式装载机把隆起路面除去,根据跑道路面情况,有可能还会用到推土机。

(4) 超过304毫米12英寸) 残骸都必须除去或者弄成小块。把人行道切割成小块会最大限度的减少可能存在的空隙以解决以后的问题。

(5)把无用 残骸推到离最小工作带以外至少930英尺)的地 堆放,堆的高度不得高于0.93英尺)。

(6) 根据所 择的修复程序把回填材料放入弹坑。注意: 有预期问题要解决,建议在不同的回填材料中间放置膜

(7)用碎石 填充弹坑并压实。碎石料分层填充,每层碎石料厚度大约152—177毫米(6—7英寸)。对C-17,把152毫米厚的碎 修复料的最上层的总体大小控制在25毫米1英寸)以内 回填高度比原来路面高度高出大约76毫米3英寸)。每 碎石料都要压实:用单轮振 压路机至少压4遍,或 用10吨的振 压路机至少压2遍。压 机沿同样的路线来回一次叫做压一遍。如果碎石料下面的地基材料比较软,也许中间放置膜并且每一层碎石料多一些厚度大一些更好。不论怎样,每层 (152毫米/6英寸)碎石 必须经单轮振 压路机至少压4遍,或 10吨的振 压路机至少压2遍,以 压实。厚度在457毫米

18英寸)的碎石层要用单轮振 压路机至少压12遍,或 10吨的振 压路机至少压6遍才能 到最终要求。

(8) 降低压 碎石层路面的坡度,到路面以上25毫米1英寸)的位

(9)用单轮 动压路机压2遍或者10吨振动 路机压1遍以压 碎石层。这样碎石层就具有了至少15承载比 CBR),支 C-130和喷气 战斗机战斗。

(10) 轮廓测 。修复的弹坑不得超过RQC± 19毫米(± 0.75英寸)。超 这个范围也可以,这要取决于修复的位置,但距离进一步保养以达到前述范围的时间就会缩短。

(11)碎石修 阶段到此完成。

 

 

机场修 第二步:安装FFM系统

空军用FFM系统

 

空军用可折叠 璃纤维垫(FFM)是由 国ReadyMat有限公 ,337-528-3443,生产 。该系统可以空运,可用车辆轻松运输,可放置于离机场人行道路面较远距离,也可存放于室内。

标准FFM材料重 1360千克3000),由9块玻璃 维板组成,每块板宽1.83,长9.14,厚12.7毫米6英尺宽,30英尺长,0.3英寸厚)。 些板是由76.2毫米3英寸)宽的 造橡胶铰链连接在一起。折叠后的尺寸是1.83宽,9.14长,203-254毫米厚(6英尺宽,30英尺长,8-10英寸厚)。 修复系统还包含连接板和2个工具 。连接板长度分别是7.329.1424英尺30英尺)。每 连接板用来连接两块9.14x16.46米(30x54英尺)的垫 。两块垫子连接后的尺寸:16.46x18.29米(54x60英尺)就是 部分弹坑修复需要的一般尺寸。如果需要更大的异物残骸挡板,需要再连接一些垫子。修复系统配有两个工具包。一个包内是所有组装,安置和维护系 统必需的工具和五金件。另一个包内是地脚螺栓,用于把垫子固定在路面上。

(1)可以在 坑修复区域附近任何地方组装垫子。该组装区域必须清扫干净,没有一点残骸。必须可以放开两张展开的垫子,垫子周围有设备的工作空间,不能干扰 到弹坑准备工作。这个区域大约要30.4x30.4米见方(100x100英尺),且 离弹坑和MAOS至少30.4100英尺)。

(2)两块垫 尾对尾放置,中间相距大约1.24英尺),第 块板直立放置这样两块垫子朝同一个方向展开。展开垫子,准备连接。垫子上面的板用尼龙绳固定在拖车上。四个人的工作小组,或者一辆叉车立于垫 子的另一面,在垫子被展开的时候举起连接着的板,以加快垫子展开的速度。

(3)把两块 子连接排成一列,9.1430英尺)的那 个边是平齐的,16.4654英尺)的那 个边是大体平行的。把16.4654英尺)的边 起一端,把7.3224英尺)或者9.1430英尺)的连 板塞入抬起部分的下方。连接板上的轴衬孔对准垫子上的孔后放下垫子。安装并手动拧紧上部的连接轴衬。在这个垫子这一边的另一端用剩余的连接板 重复同样的过程。先手动拧紧所有轴衬,稍后还会最终拧紧一次。然后把第二块垫子连同连接板拖到第一块垫子上方。第二块垫子末端的一个孔和对应 置的连接板上的孔对准,安装上部的连接轴衬。放置第二块垫子时这个末端的连接点起到一个支点的作用,这样连接板上所有剩余的孔都能成一条直线

(4)安装剩 的顶部轴衬,把第二块垫子的轴衬用拧紧扳手紧固。再把第一块垫子顶部的连接轴衬也用拧紧扳手紧固。这样所有的轴衬都已经紧固完毕,连接好的垫 子现在可以被拖到修复好的弹坑上方了。

(5)拖动垫 之前,一定要把垫子组装区域和修复的弹坑之间的区域清扫干净。否则垫子下面即使有一点残骸也会损坏垫子,而且修复的路面会不平整。

MAOS宽度允 的情况下,垫子应被拖到与弹坑平行的或者紧靠的位置。把连接板与弹坑中心对齐。用前卸式装载机或累死工具把垫子拖到弹坑上方,保持铰链与拖拉 方向垂直。放好垫子,让铰链与MAOS方向平 。垫子之间的平行误差不得大于5度。

(6)位于弹 上方的垫子必须被固定到位。不同的路面就要使用不同的紧固技术。FFM垫子都 预先钻好孔的,以便安装地脚螺栓。三种紧固技术都要用到101.6-毫米(4英寸)的轴 来安装地脚螺栓。

混凝土 面。混凝 锚通常是长127-152.4毫米,直径15.9-19.1毫米(长5-6英寸,直径0.625-0.75英寸)的岩 。对应垫子上预先钻好的孔,在路面上钻孔(对应所使用螺栓的直径)。把一个锚杆轴衬在预先钻的孔里定好位,引导钻头置于中心。路面孔的深度至 少12毫米0.5英寸),要 于螺栓的长度。用压缩空气清理掉钻孔残渣,把螺栓插入轴衬。站在垫子和轴衬上用拧紧扳手拧紧螺栓。

沥青混凝土 面。 针对沥青混凝土 面,要用长241.3毫米,直径15.9-19.1毫米(长9.5英寸,直径0.625-0.75英寸)的混凝土锚。安装方法同纯混凝土 面。关键因素是确保螺栓插入混凝土层的深度足够深,确保安装紧固。

 

沥青路 。沥青路 要用长241.3毫米9.5英寸)的螺 和聚合物。在路面上对应每个预先钻好的孔的中心位置钻深度254毫米直径38毫米(深度10英寸,直径1.5英寸)的孔 混合双组份树脂聚合物并浇入孔中,浇入深度为距离路面约38毫米0.5英寸)。然 立即把锚杆轴衬和螺栓置入孔中并压实(站立在螺栓和轴衬上)。聚合物大约3分钟即 硬化。除非有更多人员,一般没有时间先钻孔再浇入聚合物,一般是钻孔和置入螺栓同时完成。

(7)表面光 度。最终 复等级确认要通过以下工具检查:瞄准线轮廓测量支柱,隆起标杆或拉紧直线确保修复达到T.O. 35E2-4-1规定的表面光 度标准。程序在T.O. 35E2-5-1跑道快 修复之碎石修复弹坑及瞄准线轮廓测量里有相 描述。异物残骸挡板与跑道中心线的平行偏差不得超过5度。

(8)检查连 螺栓,确保连接板之间的连接牢固。检查地脚螺栓,确保牢固,确保异物残骸挡板能在道路表面完好支撑  。滑行 和停机坪应用方面,异物残骸挡板的前后缘必须用锚杆固定。如果挡板安置在飞机有可能转向的位置挡板的侧边也必须用锚杆固定。

(9)清理。不论 哪种修复方法,都要确保修复区及其附近区域不存在剩余的维修材料。

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