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 水深对刺参 运动和摄食行为的影响

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2012蛟龙号载人 潜水器,在6963米的海底发 现了海参的踪迹,而在自然条件下,刺参多分布在3-5米水深的浅 海潮间带,成参在夏季有向水深10m海区移动的 现象(廖玉麟,1997),也有学 者在20m水深处发现 刺参(Gavrilova et al.2011)。在垂直 空间上,刺参的分布与其个体大小有一定相关性,随水深的增加,刺参表现出明显的分层现象,即小个体刺参通常分布于水深较浅的区域,大个体通常分布于水深较深的海域(Dubrovskii et al.)。既然海参 能够分布在近7000米的海底, 说明其具有耐受高压的能力,但刺参却仅生活在水深20m以内的海区 ,是否是压强因素限制了刺参的垂直分布,还未曾有人进行相关研究。

In 2012, the manned submersible Jiaolong discovered the trace of sea cucumber in the depth of 6,963m at the seabed. However, in the natural condition, A. japonicus mostly distribute in the intertidal zone of shallow sea in a depth of three to five meters, and there is a phenomenon that adult sea cucumber move to the 10 meter-deep sea area in summer (LIAO Yulin, 1997). Some scholars also found A. japonicus at 20m deep (Gavrilova et al., 2011) in the past. In the vertical space, the distribution of A. japonicus has certain relevance with its individual size. With the increase of water depth, obvious stratification phenomenon appear in A. japonicus, namely, the small generally distribute in the relatively shallow zone while the large in the deep zone (Dubrovskii et al.). Since A. japonicus can distribute at the seabed nearly 7,000 meters deep, it shows that it has the capacity of high-pressure resistance, but it can only live in the sea area within 20m deep, no one has ever carried out relevant studies whether the factor of pressure intensity limits its vertical distribution.

现阶段,我 国开展刺参增养殖的海区深度一般在10m左右,而水 深10m以内,符合 刺参生活习性,可用于大面积增养殖的区域毕竟有限,如若证实刺参能够在水深更深的环境中生存,则可极大拓展刺参增养殖区域,缓解现阶段浅海增养殖压力。解决这一问题的关键,即刺参能否在此水深环境中生存,而这主要 涉及刺参能否承受该水深压强。同时,有周玮 等(2001)发现刺参 的浮游幼虫在自然环境中会出现分布分层的情况,表层和8m 水层分布最 少,3m水层分布最 多,水深对于刺参幼虫的分布是否有影响,对其附着变态是否也有影响呢?

At the present stage, the depth of sea water culturing and proliferating A. japonicus in China is approximately 10m deep in general, but the range within 10m deep meets its habits. Since there are limited areas to culture and proliferate A. japonicus extensively, if it can be proved that A. japonicus is able to live in deeper environment, the area for culture and proliferation can be greatly extended and current culturing and proliferating pressure can be also relieved. The key to solve this problem is whether A. japonicus can live in the deep water environment, which mainly involve in the fact whether A. japonicus may resist corresponding pressure of water. Meanwhile, according to ZHOU Wei et al. (2001), the pelagic larvae of A. japonicus may have stratified distribution in the natural environment, the quantity is the minimum at the surface and 8m water layer while the quantity is the maximum at 3m layer. Is there any influence of water depth on the distribution as well as attachment and metamorphosis of pelagic larvae?
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 水深对刺参 运动和摄食行为的影响